Ecuador Birding

With over 1500 species of birds, Ecuador offers more bird diversity in less space than any other country in the world….
Top Activities Ecuador Birding
Ecuador Birding

Ecuador Birding

Birding in Ecuador

Tropical Bird Diversity

Most birders are aware that bird diversity varies according to latitude. The arctic region has few resident birds, the temperate zone has more, and the tropical belt has the most. Half-way between the United States and the equator is tiny Costa Rica, which has over 850 species — more species than in the entire United States. Ecuador, sitting right on the equator, is the culmination of this trend:

With over 1500 species of birds, Ecuador offers more bird diversity in less space than any other country in the world.

Geographic good fortune has blessed Ecuador with a wide variety of faunal zones, including some of the richest on this planet, each with its characteristic birds. Ecuador’s Amazonian faunal zone alone has more than 600 species of birds, and several other Ecuadorian zones are nearly as rich.

Ecuador’s small size (equal to the U.S. state of Colorado) and well-developed transportation system means that this diversity can be easily accessed and experienced even by those with limited time and money.

The key to seeing lots of species in Ecuador is to visit as many different faunal zones as possible. However, if your goal is to observe a selection of birds closely, you will have a more satisfying experience by picking one or two zones and remaining there as long as

Ecuador’s Faunal Zones

For birding purposes, Ecuador can be divided into eight faunal zones:

  • Amazonian Lowlands
  • Northwestern (Choco) Lowlands
  • Southwestern (Tumbesin) Lowlands
  • Subtropics
  • Eastern Subtropics
  • Temperate
  • Paramo
  • Galapagos Islands

These zones are largely the result of the uplift of the Andes mountains, which separate and isolate western Ecuador from the eastern part of the country. Additionally, the western lowlands experience a strong moisture gradient from south (arid) to north (very wet), causing even more diversity.

For complete descriptions of the various fuanal zones, please check out our faunal zones page.


A birding trip to Ecuador can be cheap or expensive, depending on your degree of independence and your required comfort level. The low-end budget traveler can take public transportation (very cheap) to small towns near good forest. Cheap hotels in small towns run USD 5 -7 per night, and meals about the same. If you intend to bring your own food (there are seldom restaurants in good forest), make sure to do your shopping ahead of time in a big city, or be prepared to live on sardines and crackers. At the other end of the price scale are the Galapagos Islands and the Amazon lowlands; the best Amazonian lodges charge USD 150-200 per day (including airfare from Quito to Coca, motor canoe transport, all meals, and a birding guide).

Recommended Birding Guides

The birder with limited time would do well to arrange a tour with a professional bird guide. Tropical birds can be hard to find, especially the rare ones, and a good guide who knows bird songs can be invaluable. Unfortunately many unqualified people call themselves bird guides. Some of the most highly celebrated guides are Lelis Navarrete, Paul Greenfield and Jonas Nilson but several lodges and tour operators have good guides.

Several birding companies outside of Ecuador offer tours here with excellent guides. Field Guides Inc., Victor Emanuel Nature Tours, and Birdquest among others, offer excellent birding experiences.

Birding Strategies in the Tropics

If you choose to go on your own, you can follow certain strategies to improve your chances of seeing that once-in-a-lifetime rarity. The most important thing is to bring a tape recorder and directional microphone. (Look for my bimonthly column, one of which will be devoted to a discussion of this kind of equipment.) The above equipment will cost you as little as USD 150 and yet allow you to call in many species that I guarantee you will not see otherwise.

If you can afford it, invest in a good pair of binoculars for tropical birding.

Tropical forests are dark and wet, so you’ll need binoculars with large front lenses (bigger than 40 mm in an 8x or 10x binocular) and with some water resistance.

“Gas-sealed” binoculars are best; these never suffer from internal condensation, a common problem in humid environments with cheap binoculars.

One unsettling characteristic of tropical birds is their habit of foraging in large mixed-species flocks. This means that a birder might not see any birds at all for a long while, and then suddenly be confronted with forty or more species flitting around for ten minutes or so, followed once again by silence. Tropical birding depends on finding these flocks — you should search hard if you hear chirping in the distance. Try to follow (or better, anticipate) the flock, and learn to look for the conspicuous “core” species that usually indicate the presence of such a group. Use a tape recorder to take verbal notes of the birds you glimpse. Become familiar with your field guide in advance, perhaps tagging some of the plates with the most confusing birds, so you can quickly open to those pages after you’ve just seen a woodcreeper, foliagegleaner, or flycatcher. Don’t waste precious time looking up tanagers and other brightly patterned birds; you can look those up later, after the flock has gone.

Field Identification Guides

At the moment, the best field guide for Ecuador is Birds of Colombia by S. Hilty and W. Brown. It covers over 90% of the birds you are likely to see in Ecuador.

Common Birds of Amazonian Ecuador, Canaday and L. Jost, (available at Libri Mundi in Quito) highlights the 50 most common birds in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

The high elevations are completely covered by Birds of the High Andes by J. Fjeldsa and N. Krabbe.

Watch for Birds of Ecuador by R. Ridgely and P. Greenfield which will be available before the next millenium.

Further Reading

Fjeldsa and N. Krabbe 1990. Birds of the High Andes. Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen.

Canaday and L. Jost. 1997. Common Birds of Amazonian Ecuador. Quito: Ediciones Libri Mundi

S. Hilty. 1994. Birds of Tropical America, a watcher’s guide to behavior, breeding and diversity. Shelburne: Chapters Publishing Ltd.

S.Hilty and W. Brown. 1986. A Guide to the Birds of Colombia. Princeton: Princeton University Press.forestation, nevertheless, patches of forest still remain.

Related Pages

Provider Spotlight

Free Galapagos Trip Planner at Galapagos Islands .com – easily plan your Galapagos vacation online, find great value, and a wide selection of customized Galapagos cruises and vacations.

Galapagos Tour Experts – Adventure Life Specialize in luxury Galapagos cruises, and land-based Galapagos tours. Adventure Life can help you design the perfect trip to Ecuador. As seen in Outside Magazine, NatGeo, and the New York Times.

Voyager Galapagos Tours has excellent Galapagos cruise deals & last-minute offers, and land-based Galapagos tours (aka Island Hopping).

Galapagos & Ecuador Insiders use their local expertise to assist you in planning the perfect Galapagos cruise or Ecuador tour for your precise budget, needs, and interests.

Latin Trails craft customized journeys to the Galapagos Islands, the Ecuador mainland, the Amazon rainforest, and Peru. They operate the highly-rated Galapagos cruising yacht: Seaman Journey and the day tour yacht the Galapagos Hopper.

Bespoke Galapagos – Pioneers in Galapagos tourism. Two generations of sailing and shipbuilding showcase unparalleled knowledge in creating the most unique Galapagos Cruises.

Gulliver Expeditions – Learn more about our Ecuador Tours, Peru Tours, Ecuador Climbing Expeditions, Galapagos Land Tours, and Machu Picchu Tours. Gulliver Expeditions offer fantastic travel experiences since 2005.

Surtrek Galapagos Cruises – have offered exceptional custom-designed trips to the Galapagos for over 20 years. They now bring their brand of off-the-beaten-path trips to other countries in South America such as Peru’s Machu Picchu, Bolivia’s Uyuni Salt Flats, and Chile’s Atacama Desert.

ViaNatura – provides excellent value Galapagos cruises on the Monserrat yacht, a luxury cruise experience on the Hermes yacht, and a variety of tours in Ecuador and Peru.

Exclusive Galapagos Cruises, part of the EQ Touring group – specializes in private Galapagos yacht charters. They can help your group find the perfect yacht that matches your needs at a price negotiated by a true insider that has been doing charters in the Galapagos for decades.

Awe-inspiring Activities

Top Activities and Attractions in Ecuador
Diseño sin título
Road riding used to be a dangerous, bumpy proposition in Ecuador, but a recent boom in road building and improvement has created many roads with wide enough shoulder for cycling…
Sitting on a picturesque white-sand beach nestled in la Bahía, it was hard to imagine anything that would stop a passerby from missing the natural spectacle that unfolds each evening in the small fishing village of Crucita….
Diseño sin título (13)
We have assembled a comprehensive list of Ecuador’s top museums, including their hours of operation, addresses, and phone numbers…
Diseño sin título (14)
Immerse yourself in the rich cultural tapestry of Cuenca through its captivating museums, where history, art, and heritage converge to tell the story of this vibrant Ecuadorian city….
Besides Carnaval and Semana Santa, celebrated nation-wide, notable festivals in the Highlands include Latacunga’s Mama Negra, and Otavalo’s Inti Raymi and Yamor….